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Cladonia borealis

PNW Range:
  West sideOccasional
  East sideCommon
  Immediate coastRare
  Alpine or subalpineCommon
Habitat: Open often rocky habitats, valleys to alpine
Substrate: On soil, soil over rock, less often on rotten wood
Synonymy: none
Cladonia borealis - Squamules
by B. McCune
Cladonia borealis - Podetia base
Podetia base
by B. McCune
Cladonia borealis - KC test
KC test
by B. McCune
Cladonia borealis - Squamules
by B. McCune
Cladonia borealis - Habit
by B. McCune
Cladonia borealis - Podetia young
Podetia young
by B. McCune
Scale: Bar=1mm unless noted
Growth Form
Fruticose: Almost always
Foliose: Never
Crustose: Never
Appressed Foliose: Never
Fluffy Foliose or Strappy: Never
Dangling Hair: Never
Erect Hair: Never
Appressed Hair: Never
Stalks With Squamules: Almost always
Stalks: Almost always
Squamules: Almost always
Single Holdfast: Never
Dangling Nets: Never

Upper Surface
Upper Surface Color    (Dry) 
   Pale Gray Green: Sometimes
   Pale Yellow Green: Almost always
   Pale Green: Almost always
Upper Surface Tomentose: Never
Upper Surface Pruinose or Scabrid: Never
Upper Surface with Network of Ridges: Never
Upper Surface with Pseudocyphellae: Never
   Upper Surface with Holes into Cavity: Never
Cilia on Margins: Never
Lower Surface (Foliose)
Lower Surface Color    (Dry) 
   Whitish: Almost always
   Pale Gray: Sometimes
Veined Below: Never

Inside (Medulla) Yellow or Orange: Never
Central Cord: Never
Hollow Stalks or Hollow Lobes: Almost always
Gelatinous: Never

Green Algae Primary Photobiont: Almost always
Cyanobacteria Primary Photobiont: Never
Internal Cephalodia: Never
External Cephalodia: Never

Usnic Acid: Almost always
Cortex KC+ Yellow: Almost always
Medulla UV+ Blue White: Sometimes
Sexual Reproduction
Perithecia: Never
Apothecia: Sometimes
   Mazaedium: Never
Disk Color    (Dry) 
   Disk Red: Almost always

Asexual Reproduction
Isidia: Never
Soredia: Never
Lobules: Never

Cladonia Specific
Cup forming: Almost always
Richly Branched: Never
Stalks With Melanotic Base: Never
Branch Axils Or Cups Open: Never