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Letharia vulpina

PNW Range:
  West sideOccasional
  East sideAbundant
  Immediate coastRare
  Alpine or subalpineOccasional
Habitat: Low elevation to timberline; often abundant on exposed dead decorticate branches and snags, occasionally in shaded closed forests, but in moist, old forests restricted to dry microsites, especially in the upper canopy.
Substrate: Bark or wood, rarely rock.
Synonymy: none
Letharia vulpina - Branches
by B. McCune
Letharia vulpina - Branches
by B. McCune
Letharia vulpina - Habit
by B. McCune
Letharia vulpina - Habit
by B. McCune
Scale: Bar=1mm unless noted
Growth Form
Fruticose: Almost always
Foliose: Never
Crustose: Never
Appressed Foliose: Never
Fluffy Foliose or Strappy: Never
Dangling Hair: Never
Erect Hair: Almost always
Appressed Hair: Never
Stalks With Squamules: Never
Stalks: Never
Squamules: Never
Single Holdfast: Almost always
Dangling Nets: Never

Upper Surface
Upper Surface Color    (Dry) 
   Fluorescent Yellow Green: Almost always
   Yellow: Sometimes
Upper Surface Tomentose: Never
Upper Surface Pruinose or Scabrid: Never
Upper Surface with Network of Ridges: Sometimes
Upper Surface with Pseudocyphellae: Never
   Upper Surface with Holes into Cavity: Never
Cilia on Margins: Never

Inside (Medulla) Yellow or Orange: Never
Central Cord: Never
Hollow Stalks or Hollow Lobes: Never
Gelatinous: Never

Green Algae Primary Photobiont: Almost always
Cyanobacteria Primary Photobiont: Never
Internal Cephalodia: Never
External Cephalodia: Never

Sexual Reproduction
Perithecia: Never
Apothecia: Rarely
   Mazaedium: Never
Disk Color    (Dry) 
   Disk Brown or Tan: Almost always

Asexual Reproduction
Isidia: Commonly
Soredia: Commonly
Lobules: Never