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Melanohalea exasperatula

PNW Range:
  West sideCommon
  East sideAbundant
  Immediate coastUncommon
  Alpine or subalpineCommon
Habitat: Frequent in a very broad range of habitats, from low to high elevations, in both continental and oceanic climates, and in deep shade to exposed habitats.
Substrate: Bark or wood (both conifers and hardwoods), rarely on rock.
Synonymy: Melanelia elegantula
Melanohalea exasperatula - isidia
by B. McCune
Melanohalea exasperatula - Isidia
by B. McCune
Melanohalea exasperatula - Habit
by B. McCune
Melanohalea exasperatula - Habit
by B. McCune
Melanohalea exasperatula - Isidia and lobules
Isidia and lobules
by B. McCune
Melanohalea exasperatula - Isidia
by B. McCune
Scale: Bar=1mm unless noted
Growth Form
Fruticose: Never
Foliose: Almost always
Crustose: Never
Appressed Foliose: Almost always
Fluffy Foliose or Strappy: Never
Dangling Hair: Never
Erect Hair: Never
Appressed Hair: Never
Stalks With Squamules: Never
Stalks: Never
Squamules: Never
Single Holdfast: Never
Dangling Nets: Never
Lobe Width (mm): 3.5 (± 1.5)

Upper Surface
Upper Surface Color    (Dry) 
   Dark Green: Rarely
   Olive Brown: Almost always
   Olive Green: Almost always
   Brown: Almost always
   Tan: Rarely
Upper Surface Tomentose: Never
Upper Surface Pruinose or Scabrid: Never
Upper Surface with Network of Ridges: Never
Upper Surface with Pseudocyphellae: Never
   Upper Surface with Holes into Cavity: Never
Cilia on Margins: Never
Lower Surface (Foliose)
Lower Surface Color    (Dry) 
   Black: Almost always
   Brown: Commonly
   Tan: Commonly
Veined Below: Never
Rhizinate Below: Almost always
   Rhizines Squarrose: Never
Tomentose Below: Never
Cyphellae: Never
Pseudocyphellae Below: Never
Papillae Below: Never

Inside (Medulla) Yellow or Orange: Never
Central Cord: Never
Hollow Stalks or Hollow Lobes: Never
Gelatinous: Never

Green Algae Primary Photobiont: Almost always
Cyanobacteria Primary Photobiont: Never
Internal Cephalodia: Never
External Cephalodia: Never

Sexual Reproduction
Perithecia: Never
Apothecia: Rarely
   Mazaedium: Never
Disk Color    (Dry) 
   Disk Brown or Tan: Almost always

Asexual Reproduction
Isidia: Almost always
Soredia: Never
Lobules: Commonly