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Pilophorus acicularis

PNW Range:
  West sideCommon
  East sideRare
  Immediate coastCommon
  Alpine or subalpineNone
Habitat: Usually in partial shade in openings in low to mid-elevation moist forests; also frequent in rocky roadcuts.
Substrate: Noncalcareous rock, rarely wood.
Synonymy: none
Pilophorus acicularis - Cephalodia and primary thallus
Cephalodia and primary thallus
by B. McCune
Pilophorus acicularis - Apothecia
by B. McCune
Pilophorus acicularis - Habit
by R. Droker
Pilophorus acicularis - Habit
by B. McCune
Scale: Bar=1mm unless noted
Growth Form
Fruticose: Almost always
Foliose: Never
Crustose: Never
Appressed Foliose: Never
Fluffy Foliose or Strappy: Never
Dangling Hair: Never
Erect Hair: Never
Appressed Hair: Never
Stalks With Squamules: Almost always
Stalks: Almost always
Squamules: Sometimes
Single Holdfast: Never
Dangling Nets: Never

Upper Surface
Upper Surface Color    (Dry) 
   Pale Gray Green: Almost always
   Pale Green: Rarely
   Whitish: Almost always
   Pale Gray: Almost always
Upper Surface Tomentose: Never
Upper Surface Pruinose or Scabrid: Never
Upper Surface with Network of Ridges: Never
Upper Surface with Pseudocyphellae: Never
   Upper Surface with Holes into Cavity: Never
Cilia on Margins: Never

Inside (Medulla) Yellow or Orange: Never
Central Cord: Never
Hollow Stalks or Hollow Lobes: Never
Gelatinous: Never

Green Algae Primary Photobiont: Almost always
Cyanobacteria Primary Photobiont: Never
Internal Cephalodia: Never
External Cephalodia: Almost always

Cortex K+ Yellow: Almost always
Sexual Reproduction
Perithecia: Never
Apothecia: Almost always
   Mazaedium: Never
Disk Color    (Dry) 
   Disk Black: Almost always

Asexual Reproduction
Isidia: Never
Soredia: Never
Lobules: Never