The Hypogymnia Species of North America

Hypogymnia vittata

Click on Characteristic name for explanation. Click on image for larger version.

Overview

Synopsis: Open branching with occasional to abundant adventitious lobes; lobe cavity with dark ceilings and floors, lower surface and lobe tips conspicuously perforate with large holes, soralia sparse to abundant, labriform beneath the lobe tips; medulla K+ slow reddish brown, KC+ orange red, P-.
Distribution: China: many provinces, 5 different forms (Wei 1991, forms vittata, hypotrypanea, stricta, physodioides, pinicola); Madeira (Tavares 1952), Canary Islands (Tavares 1952), Turkey (John 1996), Ukraine (Kondratyuk et al. 1996); temperate parts of Himalays (Awasthi 1988); India: Himachal Pradesh, Parbati R near Pulga, 2850 m, on tree trunk, 1975, Awasthi & Dange 75.283 (LWU); W. Bengal, Darjeeling district; Awasthi & Agarwal several spec's (LWU); E. Nepal, Mewakhola Valley, 3600 m, Awasthi herb. (nonsor.), etc. (Awasthi 1984); Darjeeling District and Nagaland (Singh 1999). Streimann (1986) report from Papua New Guinea may be just H. pectinatula, which he considered a synonym of H. vittata; Xizang (Tibet) (Wei & Jiang (1986); Korea (Moon 1999). Var. reagens reported from Japan by Moon (1996). Argentina (Calvelo & Liberatore 2002). Report from Michigan (Manniere 411 in Fryday et al. 2001 after Manniere 1999) is erroneous (H. physodes).
Habitat: cool temperate and boreal forests to arctic tundra
Range: Eastern North America, Arctic, Subarctic, Alpine, Pacific Northwest Immediate Coast
Other Diagnostics: Medulla P- with holes in lower surface (best seen when moist). Awasthi (1984): "distinctive in elongate laciniae with inflated lower cortex and medulla P-. The sorediate apices. . resemble those of H. physodes but the latter has no perforations on lower surface and the medulla is P+R."
Substrate Notes: On both conifers and hardwoods, both bark and wood, rarely on rock, moss over rock, or tundra sod
Abundance in North America: Locally common
Substrate: Typically
Host: Conifers and deciduous trees, both bark and wood
On Rock: Rarely
On Moss/Detritus/Sod: Rarely
Authority: (Ach.) Parrique
References: Zeybek et al. (1993), Westberg et al. (2011)
Synonymy: None
Hypogymnia vittata - Habit
Habit

Vegetative Structures

Habit Appressed: Sometimes
Habit Pendulous: Rarely
Habit Erect to Suberect: Sometimes
Size (cm): Mean: 10 SD: 5
Upper Color- White to Greenish Gray: White to greenish gray or brown
Upper Surface Brown when Solarized: Dark brown
Dark Mottles: Sometimes present
Black Border: Often present
Lobes Separated: Separate to centrally subcontiguous
Lobe Outline: Even to +/- pinched-swollen
Upper Surface Texture: Smooth to weakly rugose
Branching: Variable
Budding: Present
Lobe Width (mm): Mean: 1.75 SD: 0.625
Lobe Tips, Axils, and/or Lower Surface Perforated: Almost always
Lobe Tips Perforated: Perforate
Lower Surface Perforated: Sparsely perforate
Cavernulae: Never
Thallus Texture: Cartilaginous
Medulla: Almost always
Ceiling Color: Dark
Floor Color: Dark
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Habit
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Hypogymnia vittata - Lower surface
Lower surface
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Hypogymnia vittata - Lobes
Lobes
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Lobes
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Lower surface
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Habit
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Lower surface
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Reproductive Structures

Soredia: Labriform
   Soredia Texture: Commonly
   Soredia Terminal or Laminal: Almost always
   Soredia Shape Lip-Shaped: Almost always
   Schizidia: Rarely
   Isidia: None
Lobules: None
Apothecia: Rare
Spore Length (µm): Mean: 5.4 SD: 0.3 Max: 6 Min: 4.8
Spore Width (µm): Mean: 5.1 SD: 0.15 Max: 5.4 Min: 4.8
Pycnidia: Sparse
Hypogymnia vittata - Soredia
Soredia
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Hypogymnia vittata - Apothecia
Apothecia
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Hypogymnia vittata - Ascospores
Ascospores
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Chemistry