Lichenicolous Fungi of the Pacific Northwest

Some Keys for Lichenicolous Fungi and Hosts


Keys for Lichen Host Taxa

Lichen Host Taxon Short Reference Full Reference Region Limitations
ArthrorhaphisHafellner and Obermayer 1995Hafellner, J. and W. Obermayer. 1995. Cercidospora trypetheliza und einege weitere lichenicole Ascomyceten auf Arthrorhaphis. Cryptogamie, Bryologie Lichenólogie 16: 177-190.World 
BaeomycesIhlen 1998Ihlen, P. G. 1998. The lichenicolous fungi on species of the genera Baeomyces, Dibaeis, and Icmadophila in Norway. The Lichenologist 30(1): 27-57.Norway 
CandelariellaOhmura et al. 2014Ohmura, Y., L. Yakovchenko and M.P. Zhurbenko. 2014. Carbonea vitellinaria new to Japan, with a key to lichenicolous fungi growing on species of Candelariella. Mycosphere 5(5): 607-611.World 
CandelariellaHawksworth et al. 2016Hawksworth, D. L., M. G. Halıcı, Z. Kocakaya and M. Kocakaya. 2016. Henfellra muriformis gen. et sp. nov., a new dictyosporous pycnidial fungus on Candelariella, with a key to the lichenicolous fungi known from that genus. Herzogia 29: 329-336.World 
Cetraria aculeataKhodosovtsev et al. 2018Khodosovtsev A., V. Darmostuk, A. Suija and A. Ordynets. 2018. Didymocyrtis trassii sp. nov. and other lichenicolous fungi on Cetraria aculeata. The Lichenologist 50(5): 529-540.World 
CladoniaZhurbenko and Pino-Bodas 2017Zhurbenko, M. P. and R. Pino-Bodas. 2017. A revision of lichenicolous fungi growing on Cladonia, mainly from the Northern Hemisphere, with a worldwide key to the known species. Opuscula Philolichenum 16: 188-266.World 
DibaeisIhlen 1998Ihlen, P. G. 1998. The lichenicolous fungi on species of the genera Baeomyces, Dibaeis, and Icmadophila in Norway. The Lichenologist 30(1): 27-57.Norway 
HaematommaKalb et al. 1995Kalb, K., J. Hafellner and B. Staiger. 1995. Haematomma-studien. II. Lichenicole Pilze auf Arten der Flechtengattung Haematomma. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 59: 199-222World 
IcmadophilaIhlen 1998Ihlen, P. G. 1998. The lichenicolous fungi on species of the genera Baeomyces, Dibaeis, and Icmadophila in Norway. The Lichenologist 30(1): 27-57.Norway 
Ionaspis lacustrisOrange 2002Orange, A. 2002. Lichenicolous fungi on Ionaspis lacustris. Mycotaxon 81: 265-279.Europe 
Lecideoid TaxaTriebel 1989Triebel, D. 1989. Lecideicole Ascomyceten. Eine Revision der obligat lichenicolen Ascomyceten auf lecideoiden Flechten. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 35: 1-278.World 
LobariaEtayo and Diederich 1996bEtayo, J. and P. Diederich. 1996b. Lichenicolous fungi from the western Pyrenees, France and Spain. III. Species on Lobaria pulmonaria. Bulletin de la societe des naturalistes luxembougeois 97: 93-118.Pyrenees 
OchrolechiaZhurbenko et al. 2018Zhurbenko M.P., K. Tadome and Y. Ohmura. 2018. Pronectria japonica species nova and a key to the lichenicolous fungi and lichens growing on Ochrolechia. Herzogia 31: 494-504.World 
ParmeliaHafellner 1998Hafellner, J. 1998. Studien an lichenicolen Pilzen und Flechten, X. Arthophacopsis, eine neue Gattung lichenicoler Ascomyceten (Arthoniales). Cryptogamie, Bryologie-Lichenologie 19: 155-168.World 
PeltigeraHalıcı et al. 2012Halıcı, M. G., M. Candan and A. Türk. 2012. A key to the peltigericolous fungi in Turkey. Mycotaxon 119: 277-289.Turkey 
PeltigeraHawksworth 1980Hawksworth, D. L. 1980. Notes on some fungi occurring on Peltigera, with a key to accepted species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 74(2): 363-386.World 
PhlyctisMuscavitch et al. 2017Muscavitch, Z. M., J. C. Lendemer and R. C. Harris. 2017. A synopsis of the lichenicolous fungi occurring on Phlyctis including description of a new Monodictys widespread on P. speirea.  The Bryologist 120(4): 418-426.World 
PhysciaHafellner and Zimmerman 2012Hafellner, J. and E. Zimmermann. 2012. A lichenicolous species of Pleospora (Ascomycota) and a key to the fungi invading Physcia species. Herzogia 25(1): 47-59.World 
PilophorusZhurbenko and Triebel 2005Zhurbenko, M. P. and D. Triebel. 2005. Lasiosphaeriopsis pilophori sp. nov. (Sordariales) and other lichenicolous fungi on Pilophorus. Mycological Progress 4(4): 317-323.World 
PlacopsisBrackel and Berger 2010Brackel, W. von and F. Berger. 2010. Gall-inducing species of Polycoccum (Ascomycota) on the lichen genus Placopsis. Herzogia 23: 195-204.World 
Rhizocarpon subgen. RhizocarponHafellner 2006Hafellner, J. 2006. Lecideoid lecanoralean ascomycetes invading Rhizocarpon subgen. Rhizocarpon taxa, with special emphasis on cryptothalline species. Fritschiana (Graz) 52: 31-48.WorldLecideoid lecanoralean ascomycetes
SiphulaMotiejūnaitė et al. 2019Motiejūnaitė, J., M. P. Zhurbenko, A. Suija and G. Kantvilas. 2019. Lichenicolous ascomycetes on Siphula-like lichens, with a key to the species. Lichenologist 51(1): 45-73.World 
StereocaulonZhurbenko 2010Zhurbenko M, P. 2010. Lichenicolous fungi and lichens growing on Stereocaulon from the Holarctic, with a key to the known species. Opuscula Philolichenum 8: 9-39.World 
TeloschistaceaeNavarro-Rosinés and Etayo 2001Navarro-Rosinés, P. and J. Etayo. 2001. Lichenochora epinashii sp. nov. y L. sinapispermae sp. nov. (Phyllochorales, Ascomicetes), dos nuevos hongos lichenícolas sobre Caloplaca. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 22(2): 147-158.WorldLichenochora
TephromelaHafellner 2007Hafellner, J. 2007. The lichenicolous fungi inhabiting Tephromela species. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 96: 103-128.World 
ThamnoliaZhurbenko 2012Zhurbenko, M.  2012.  Lichenicolous fungi growing on Thamnolia, mainly from the Holarctic, with a worldwide key to the known species.  Lichenologist 44(2): 147-177.World 
XanthoriaTsurykau and Etayo 2017Tsurykau, A. and J. Etayo. 2017. Capronia suijae (Herpotrichiellaceae, Eurotiomycetes), a new fungus on Xanthoria parietina from Belarus, with a key to the lichenicolous species growing on Xanthoria s. str. The Lichenologist 49(1): 1-12.World 


Keys for Lichenicolous Fungi Taxa

Lichenicolous Fungus Taxon Fungus Synonyms Used in ReferenceShort Reference Full Reference Region Limitations
ALL Hawksworth 1983Hawksworth, D. L. 1983. A key to the lichen-forming, parasitic, parasymbiotic and saprophytic fungi occurring on lichens in the British Isles. The Lichenologist 15(1): 1-44.British Isles 
ALL Hawksworth et al. 2010Hawksworth D. L., V. Atienza and B. J. Coppins. 2010. Artificial keys to the lichenicolous fungi of Great Britain, Ireland, the Channel Islands, Iberian Peninsula, and Canary Islands. Fourth draft edition for testing only. Available at http://www.ascofrance.fr/uploads/forum_file/LichenKeys2010-0001.pdfGreat Britain, Ireland, the Channel Islands, Iberian Peninsula, and Canary Islands 
ALL Ihlen and Wedin 2008Ihlen, P. G. and M. Wedin. 2008. An annotated key to the lichenicolous Ascomycota (including mitosporic morphs) of Sweden. Nova Hedwigia 86: 275-365.Sweden 
ALL Clauzade et al. 1989Clauzade, G., P. Diederich and C. Roux. 1989. Nelikeniĝintaj fungoj likenloĝaj. Ilustrita determinlibro. Bulletin de la Société linnéenne Provence, Numero spécial 1: 142 pp.World 
ALL Nash et al. 2004Nash, T. H. III, B. D. Ryan, P. Diederich, C. Gries & F. Bungartz (eds.). 2004. Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region, Vol. 2. Lichens Unlimited, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.Sonoran Region 
Acremonium Lowen 1995Lowen, R. 1995. Acremonium section Lichenoidea section nov. and Pronectria oligospora species nov. Mycotaxon 53: 81-95.WorldKey to the lichenicolous species of Acremonium - also a key to the sections of Acremonium
Arthonia Kantvilas and Wedin 2015Kantvilas, G. and M. Wedin. 2015. Lichenicolous species of the Ascomycete genus Arthonia from Kangaroo Island. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 29: 1-6.Australia 
Arthonia Grube et al. 1995Grube, M., M. Matzer and J. Hafellner. 1995. A preliminary account of the lichenicolous Arthonia species with reddish, K+ reactive pigments. Lichenologist 27(1): 25-42WorldSpecies with reddish, K+reactive pigments covered
Arthonia Joshi et al. 2013Joshi, S., D. K. Upreti and S. Nayaka. 2013. A new lichenicolous Arthonia species (Arthoniaceae) on Diorygma from India. The Lichenologist 45(3): 323-327.Worldon Graphidaceae (Graphis and Thelotrema)
Arthonia Wedin and Hafellner 1998Wedin, M., and J. Hafellner. 1998. Lichenicolous species of Arthonia on Lobariaceae with notes on excluded taxa. The Lichenologist 30(1): 59-91.Worldon Lobariaceae
Bellemerella Pérez-Ortega and Spribille 2007Pérez-Ortega, S. and T. Spribille. 2007. Bellemerella ritae sp. nov. (Verrucariaceae), a new lichenicolous ascomycete from northwest North America.  Nova Hedwigia 85: 515-520.World 
Briancoppinsia and coelomycetes with hyaline, basally truncate conidia Diederich et al. 2012Diederich, P., J. D. Lawrey, M. Sikaroodi, P. P. G. van den Boom & D. Ertz. 2012. Briancoppinsia, a new coelomycetous genus of Arthoniaceae (Arthoniales) for the lichenicolous Phoma cytospora, with a key to this and similar taxa. Fungal Diversity 52: 1-12.WorldBriancoppinsia and similar lichenicolous coelomycetes with hyaline, basally truncate conidia
Capronia Halıcı et al. 2010Halıcı, M. G., D. L. Hawksworth, M. Candan and A. O. Turk. 2010. A new lichenicolous species of Capronia (Ascomycota, Herpotrichiellaceae), with a key to the known lichenicolous species of the genus. Fungal Diversity 40: 37-40.World 
Carbonea Pirogov et al. 2014Pirogov, M., N Chepelevska and J. Vondrák. 2014. Carbonea in Ukraine. Studia Biologica 8(1): 137-148.Ukraine 
Cercidospora Ihlen and Wedin 2007Ihlen, P. G. and M. Wedin. 2007. Cercidospora alpina sp. nov. and a key to the known species in Fennoscandia. The Lichenologist 39(1): 1-6.Fennoscandia 
Cladophialophora Diederich et al. 2013Diederich, P., D. Ertz, J. D. Lawrey, M. Sikaroodi & W. A. Untereiner. 2013. Molecular data place the hyphomycetous lichenicolous genus Sclerococcum close to Dactylospora (Eurotiomycetes) and S. parmeliae in Cladophialophora (Chaetothyriales). Fungal Diversity 58: 61-72.World 
Coelomycetes Hawksworth 1981Hawksworth, D. L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 9: 1-98.World 
Cornutispora Punithalingam 2003Punithalingam, E. 2003. Nuclei, micronuclei and appendages in tri- and tetraradiate conidia of Cornutispora and four other coelomycete genera. Mycological Research 107(8): 917-948.World 
CyphobasidiumCystobasidiumDiederich 1996Diederich, P. 1996. The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 61: 1-198.World 
Dacampia Halıcı and Hawksworth 2009Halıcı, M.G. and D. L. Hawksworth. 2008. Two new species of Dacampia (Ascomycota, Dacampiaceae), with a key to and synopsis of the known species of the genus. Fungal Diversity 28: 49-54.World 
Dacampia Khodosovtsev and Darmostuk 2016Khodosovtsev, A. Y. and V. V. Darmostuk. 2016. Pleospora xanthoriae sp. nov. (Pleosporaceae, Pleosporales), a new lichenicolous fungus on Xanthoria parietina from Ukraine, with a key to the known lichenicolous species of Dacampia and Pleospora. Opuscula Philolichenum 15: 6-11.World 
Didymocyrtis Ertz et al. 2015Ertz, D., P. Diederich, J. D. Lawrey, F. Berger, C. E. Freebury, B. Coppins, A. Gardiennet & J. Hafellner.  2015a.  Phylogenetic insights resolve Dacampiaceae (Pleosporales) as polyphyletic: Didymocyrtis (Pleosporales, Phaeosphaeriaceae) with Phoma-like anamorphs resurrected and segregated from Polycoccum (Trypetheliales, Polycoccaceae fam. nov.).  Fungal Diversity 74: 53-89.World 
Endococcus Hawksworth 1979bHawksworth, D. L. 1979. Studies in the genus Endococcus (Ascomycotina, Dothideales). Botaniska Notiser 132: 283-290.World 
Endohyalina Giralt et al. 2010Giralt, M., P. P. G. van den Boom and J. A. Elix. 2010. Endohyalina, the genus in the Physciaceae to accommodate the species of the Rinodina ericina-group. Mycological Progress 9(1): 37-48.World 
Epicladonia Hawksworth 1981Hawksworth, D. L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 9: 1-98.World 
Epigloea Pérez-Ortega and Barreno 2006Pérez-Ortega, S. and E. Barreno. 2006. The genus Epigloea Zukal in the Iberian Peninsula. Nova Hedwigia 83: 523-531.Iberian Peninsula 
Epithamnolia Suija et al. 2017Suija, A., P. van den Boom, E. Zimmermann, M. P. Zhurbenko and P. Diederich. Lichenicolous species of Hainesia belong to Phacidiales (Leotiomycetes) and are included in an extended concept of Epithamnolia. Mycologia 109(6): 882-889.World 
Gelatinopsis Ertz and Diederich 2006Ertz, D. and P. Diederich. 2006. Gelatinopsis leptogii (Helotiales, Ascomycota), a new lichenicolous fungus on Leptogium byssinum from Belgium and Germany. The Lichenologist 38(6): 515-518.World 
Hainesia Diederich and van den Boom 2013Diederich, P. and P. van den Boom. 2013. Two new lichenicolous species of Hainesia (asexual Ascomycetes) growing on Cladonia. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 114: 59-63.World 
Helotialian species (Bachmanniomyces (as Phaeopyxis), Geltingia, Gelatinopsis, Pezizella, Skyttella, Unguiculariopsis) Rambold and Triebel 1990Rambold, G. and D. Triebel. 1990. Gelatinopsis, Geltingia and Phaeopyxis - three helotialean genera with lichenicolous species. Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 46: 375-389.World 
Heterobasidiomycetes Diederich 1996Diederich, P. 1996. The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 61: 1-198.World 
Intralichen Hawksworth and Cole 2002Hawksworth, D. L. and M. S. Cole. 2002. Intralichen, a new genus for lichenicolous ‘Bispora’ and ‘Trimmatostroma’ species. Fungal Diversity 11: 87-97.World 
Lasiosphaeriopsis Pérez-Ortega and Halıcı 2008Pérez-Ortega, S. and Halıcı, M.G. 2008. Lasiosphaeriopsis lecanorae sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Nitschkiaceae) on Lecanora polytropa from Spain with a key to the known species of the genus. Mycotaxon 104: 247-251.World 
Leotiales Diederich and Etayo 2000Diederich, P. and J. Etayo. 2000. A synopsis of the genera Skyttea, Llimoniella and Rhymbocarpus (lichenicolous Ascomycota, Leotiales). Lichenologist 32: 423-485.WorldKey to genera
Libertiella Hawksworth and Miadlikowska 1997Hawksworth, D. L. and J. Miadlikowska. 1997. New species of lichenicolous fungi occurring on Peltigera in Ecuador and Europe. Mycological Research 101(9): 1127-1134.World 
Lichenochora Etayo and Navarro-Rosinés 2008Etayo, J. and P. Navarro-Rosinés. 2008. Una combinación y tres especies nuevas de Lichenochora (Phyllachorales, Ascomicetes liquenícolas), y notas adicionales para el género. Revista Catalana de Micologia 30: 27-44World 
Lichenochora Navarro-Rosinés and Etayo 2001Navarro-Rosinés, P. and J. Etayo. 2001. Lichenochora epinashii sp. nov. y L. sinapispermae sp. nov. (Phyllochorales, Ascomicetes), dos nuevos hongos lichenícolas sobre Caloplaca. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 22(2): 147-158.WorldTeloschistaceae
Lichenoconium Hawksworth 1981Hawksworth, D. L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 9: 1-98.World 
Lichenoconium Cole and Hawksworth 2004Cole, M. S. and D. L. Hawksworth. 2004. Lichenoconium christiansenii sp. nov. from Nodobryoria abbreviata (Parmeliaceae) in the Pacific Northwest, with a key to the known lichenicolous species. Lichenologist 36: 1-6.World 
Lichenoconium Hawksworth 1977aHawksworth, D. L. 1977a. Taxonomic and biological observations on the genus Lichenoconium (Sphaeropsidales). Persoonia 9(2): 159-188.World 
Lichenodiplis Hawksworth 1981Hawksworth, D. L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 9: 1-98.WorldSome are in the paper under Laeviomyces
Lichenodiplis Diederich 2003Diederich, P. 2003. New species and new records of American lichenicolous fungi [Neue Arten und neue Funde von amerkanischen lichenicolen Pilzen]. Herzogia 16: 41-90.World 
Lichenostigma subgenus Lichenogramma Calatayud et al. 2002Calatayud, V., P. Navarro-Rosinés and J. Hafellner. 2002. A synopsis of Lichenostigma subgen. Lichenogramma (Arthoniales), with a key to the species. Mycological Research 106: 1230-1242.World 
Lichenostigma subgenus Lichenostigma Pérez-Ortega and Calatayud 2009Pérez-Ortega, S. and V. Calatayud. 2009. Lichenostigma epirupestre, a new lichenicolous species on Pertusaria from Spain. Mycotaxon 107: 189-195.World 
Lichenostigmatales Ertz et al. 2014Ertz, D., J. D. Lawrey, R. S. Common and P. Diederich. 2014. Molecular data resolve a new order of Arthoniomycetes sister to the primarily lichenized Arthoniales and composed of black yeasts, lichenicolous and rock-inhabiting species. Fungal Diversity 66:113-137.World 
Llimoniella Diederich and Etayo 2000Diederich, P. and J. Etayo. 2000. A synopsis of the genera Skyttea, Llimoniella and Rhymbocarpus (lichenicolous Ascomycota, Leotiales). Lichenologist 32: 423-485.World 
Llimoniella Diederich et al. 2010Diederich, P., D. Ertz, and J. Etayo. 2010. An enlarged concept of Llimoniella (lichenicolous Helotiales), with a revised key to the species and notes on related genera. Lichenologist 42:  253-269.World 
Microcalicium Hawksworth 1981Hawksworth, D. L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 9: 1-98.WorldAnamorphs only
Minutoexcipula Diederich 2003Diederich, P. 2003. New species and new records of American lichenicolous fungi [Neue Arten und neue Funde von amerkanischen lichenicolen Pilzen]. Herzogia 16: 41-90.World 
Muellerella Hawksworth 1979Hawksworth, D. L. 1979. Studies in the genus Endococcus (Ascomycotina, Dothideales). Botaniska Notiser 132: 283-290.World 
Opegrapha Hafellner 1994aHafellner, J. 1994a. Beiträge zu einem Prodromus der lichenicolen Pilze Österreichs und angrenzender Gebiete. I. Einige neue oder seltene Arten. Herzogia 10: 1-28.Europe 
Opegraphoid fungi Hafellner 2009bHafellner, J. 2009b. Phacothecium resurrected and the new genus Phacographa (Arthoniales) proposed. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 100: 85-121.WorldOpegraphoid fungi with widely exposed discs
Ostropales Diederich and Etayo 2000Diederich, P. and J. Etayo. 2000. A synopsis of the genera Skyttea, Llimoniella and Rhymbocarpus (lichenicolous Ascomycota, Leotiales). Lichenologist 32: 423-485.WorldKey to genera
Phacopsis Triebel et al. 1995Triebel, D., G. Rambold and J. A. Elix. 1995. A conspectus of the genus Phacopsis (Lecanorales). The Bryologist 98(1): 71-83.World 
Phoma Hawksworth 1981Hawksworth, D. L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 9: 1-98.WorldIncludes those now separated into the genus Didymocyrtis
Phoma Hawksworth and Cole 2004Hawksworth, D. L. & M. S. Cole. 2004. Phoma fuliginosa sp. nov., from Caloplaca trachyphylla in Nebraska, with a key to the known lichenicolous species. Lichenologist 36: 7-13.WorldIncludes those now separated into the genus Didymocyrtis
Pleospora Khodosovtsev and Darmostuk 2016Khodosovtsev, A. Y. and V. V. Darmostuk. 2016. Pleospora xanthoriae sp. nov. (Pleosporaceae, Pleosporales), a new lichenicolous fungus on Xanthoria parietina from Ukraine, with a key to the known lichenicolous species of Dacampia and Pleospora. Opuscula Philolichenum 15: 6-11.World 
Polycoccum Halıcı et al. 2013Halıcı, M. G., H. E. Akgül, C. Öztürk and E. Kiliç. 2013. Polycoccum anatolicum sp. nov. on Lepraria incana and a key to Polycoccum species known from Turkey. Mycotaxon 124: 45-50.Turkey 
Polycoccum Atienza et al. 2003Atienza, V., V. Calatayud and D. L. Hawksworth. 2003. Notes on the genus Polycoccum (Ascomycota, Dacampiaceae) in Spain, with a key to the species. The Lichenologist 35(2): 125-135.Spain 
Polycoccum Hawksworth and Diederich 1988Hawksworth, D. L. and P. Diederich. 1988. A synopsis of the genus Polycoccum (Dothideales), with a key to accepted species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 90: 293-312.World 
Pronectria Khodosovtsev et al. 2012Khodosovtsev A., J. Vondrák, A. Naumovich, J. Kocourková, O. Vondráková and J. Motiejūnaitė. 2012. Three new Pronectria species in terricolous and saxicolous microlichen communities (Bionectriaceae, Ascomycota). Nova Hedwigia 95: 211-220.World 
Psammina van der Kolk et al. 2020van der Kolk, H-J., P. M. Earland-Bennett and D. L. Hawksworth. 2020. A new Psammina species with exceptionally long conidial arms, with a key to the ten known species of the genus. Lichenologist 52(5): 337-343.World 
PsoroglaenaMacentinaOrange 1991Orange, A. 1991. Macentina dictyospora (Verrucariaceae), a new lichenized species from Sweden. Lichenologist 23(1): 15-20.World 
Refractohilum Hawksworth 1977bHawksworth, D. L. 1977b. Three new genera of lichenicolous fungi. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 75: 195-209.World 
Rhagadostoma Navarro-Rosinés et al. 1999Navarro-Rosinés, P., J. Etayo and V. Calatayud. 1999. Rhagadostoma collematum sp. nov. (ascomicetes liquenícolas, Sordariales) y nuevos datos para otras especies del género. Bulletin de la Société linnéenne de Provence 50: 233-241.World 
Rhymbocarpus Diederich and Etayo 2000Diederich, P. and J. Etayo. 2000. A synopsis of the genera Skyttea, Llimoniella and Rhymbocarpus (lichenicolous Ascomycota, Leotiales). Lichenologist 32: 423-485.World 
Rhymbocarpus Etayo and Diederich 2011Etayo, J. and P. Diederich. 2011. Rhymbocarpus aggregatus, a new species of lichenicolous fungi (Helotiales) growing on Buellia griseovirens in Spain, with a revised key to species of the genus. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 112: 35-38.World 
Roselliniella Darmostuk et al. 2018Darmostuk, V. V., A. Y. Khodosovtsev, G. O. Naumovich and N. V. Kharechko. 2018. Roselliniella lecideae sp. nov. and other interesting lichenicolous fungi from the Northern Black Sea region (Ukraine). Turkish Journal of Botany 42: 354-361.World 
Sclerococcum Diederich 2015Diederich, P. 2015. Two new lichenicolous species of Sclerococcum (asexual Ascomycetes) growing on Graphidaceae. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 117: 35-42.World 
Sclerococcum Diederich and van den Boom 2015Diederich, P. & P. van den Boom, 2017. Sclerococcum phaeophysciae and S. toensbergii, two new lichenicolous asexual Ascomycetes, with a revised key to the species of Sclerococcum. Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 119: 71-78.World 
Sclerococcum (former Dactylospora)DactylosporaIhlen et al. 2004Ihlen, P. G., H. Holien & T. Tønsberg. 2004. Two new species of Dactylospora (Dactylosporaceae, Lecanorales), with a key to the known species in Scandinavia. The Bryologist 107: 357-362.Scandinavia 
Sclerococcum (former Dactylospora)DactylosporaSarrión et al. 2002Sarrión, F. J., J. Hafellner and A. R. Burgaz. 2002. Three new species of the genus Dactylospora in Spain. The Lichenologist 34(5): 361-368.Iberian Peninsula 
Scutula Wedin et al. 2007Wedin, M., P. G. Ihlen & D. Triebel. 2007. Scutula tuberculosa, the correct name of the Scutula growing on Solorina spp., with a key to Scutula s. str. in the Northern Hemisphere.  Lichenologist 39: 329-333.Northern Hemisphere 
Skyttea Diederich and Etayo 2000Diederich, P. and J. Etayo. 2000. A synopsis of the genera Skyttea, Llimoniella and Rhymbocarpus (lichenicolous Ascomycota, Leotiales). Lichenologist 32: 423-485.World 
Skyttea Iturriaga and Hawksworth 2004Iturriaga, T. and D. L. Hawksworth. 2004. Skyttea richardsonii sp. nov. from Maine, with a key to the species known from North America. Mycologia 96(4): 925-928.North America 
Skyttea Sherwood et al. 1980Sherwood, M. A., Hawksworth, D. L. and Coppins, B. J. 1980. Skyttea, a new genus of odontotremoid lichenicolous fungi. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 75: 479-490.World 
Sphaerellothecium Roux and Triebel 1994Roux, C. and D. Triebel. 1994. Révision des espèces de Stigmidium et de Sphaerellothecium (champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés, Ascomycetes) correspondant à Pharcidia epicymatia sensu Keissler ou à Stigmidium schaereri auct. Bull. Soc. Linn. Provence 45: 451-542.World 
Sphaerellothecium Diederich and Zhurbenko 2009Diederich, P. and M. P. Zhurbenko. 2009. Sphaerellothecium phaeorrhizae and Zwackhiomyces sipmanii spp. nov. on Phaeorrhiza sareptana from north-eastern Asia, with a key to the species of Sphaerellothecium. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 99: 113-122.World 
SphaeropeziaOdontotremaDiederich et al. 2002Diederich, P., M. Zhurbenko and J. Etayo. 2002. The lichenicolous species of Odontotrema (syn. Lethariicola) (Ascomycota, Ostropales). Lichenologist 34: 479-501.World 
Sphinctrina Löfgren and Tibell 1979Löfgren, O. and L. Tibell. 1979. Sphinctrina in Europe. The Lichenologist 11(2): 109-137.Europe 
Stigmidium Roux and Triebel 1994Roux, C. and D. Triebel. 1994. Révision des espèces de Stigmidium et de Sphaerellothecium (champignons lichénicoles non lichénisés, Ascomycetes) correspondant à Pharcidia epicymatia sensu Keissler ou à Stigmidium schaereri auct. Bull. Soc. Linn. Provence 45: 451-542.World 
Syzygospora Diederich 1996Diederich, P. 1996. The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 61: 1-198.World 
Taeniolella Heuchert et al. 2018Heuchert, B., U. Braun, P. Diederich and D. Ertz.  2018. Taxonomic monograph of the genus Taeniolella s. lat. (Ascomycota).  Fungal Systematics and Evolution 2: 69-261.World 
Tremella Diederich 1996Diederich, P. 1996. The Lichenicolous Heterobasidiomycetes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 61: 1-198.World 
Trimmatostroma Diederich et al. 2010aDiederich, P., U. Braun, B. Heuchert and D. Ertz. 2010a. Four new lichen-associated Trimmatostroma species (hyphomycetes). Bulletin de la Société des naturalistes luxembourgeois 111: 47-55.World 
Vouauxiella Hawksworth 1981Hawksworth, D. L. 1981. The lichenicolous Coelomycetes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 9: 1-98.World 
Zwackhiomyces Calatayud et al. 2007Calatayud, V., D. Triebel and S. Pérez-Ortega. 2007. Zwackhiomyces cervinae, a new lichenicolous fungus (Xanthopyreniaceae) on Acarospora, with a key to the known species of the genus. The Lichenologist 39(2): 129-134.World