<  Pannaria rubiginosa
Parmelia pseudosulcata  >
Click on Characteristic name for explanation. Click on image for larger version.
Parmelia hygrophila

Overview
PNW Range:
  West sideCommon
  East sideOccasional
  Immediate coastCommon
  Alpine or subalpineRare
Habitat: Common in moist low to mid-elevation forests, also in urban and agricultural habitats west Cascades.
Substrate: Bark and wood, rarely rock.
Comments:
Synonymy: none
Parmelia hygrophila - Habit
Habit
by B. McCune
1/6
Parmelia hygrophila - Rhizines
Rhizines
by B. McCune
2/6
Parmelia hygrophila - Habit
Habit
by B. McCune
3/6
Parmelia hygrophila - Habit
Habit
by B. McCune
4/6
Parmelia hygrophila - Soredia
Soredia
by B. McCune
5/6
Parmelia hygrophila - Isidia
Isidia
by B. McCune
6/6
Scale: Bar=1mm unless noted
Growth Form
Fruticose: Never
Foliose: Almost always
Crustose: Never
Appressed Foliose: Almost always
Fluffy Foliose or Strappy: Never
Dangling Hair: Never
Erect Hair: Never
Appressed Hair: Never
Stalks With Squamules: Never
Stalks: Never
Squamules: Never
Single Holdfast: Never
Dangling Nets: Never
Lobe Width (mm): 3.5 (± 1.5)

Upper Surface
Upper Surface Color    (Dry) 
   Pale Gray Green: Almost always
   Pale Green: Rarely
   Pale Gray: Almost always
Upper Surface Tomentose: Never
Upper Surface Pruinose or Scabrid: Never
Upper Surface with Network of Ridges: Sometimes
Upper Surface with Pseudocyphellae: Almost always
   Upper Surface with Holes into Cavity: Never
Cilia on Margins: Never
Lower Surface (Foliose)
Lower Surface Color    (Dry) 
   Black: Almost always
   Brown: Rarely
Veined Below: Never
Rhizinate Below: Almost always
   Rhizines Squarrose: Never
Tomentose Below: Never
Cyphellae: Never
Pseudocyphellae Below: Never
Papillae Below: Never

Interior
Inside (Medulla) Yellow or Orange: Never
Central Cord: Never
Hollow Stalks or Hollow Lobes: Never
Gelatinous: Never

Photobiont
Green Algae Primary Photobiont: Almost always
Cyanobacteria Primary Photobiont: Never
Internal Cephalodia: Never
External Cephalodia: Never

Chemistry
Cortex K+ Yellow: Almost always
Medulla P+ Orange or Red: Almost always
Medulla P+ Yellow: Rarely
Medulla K+ Orange or Red: Almost always
Medulla K+ Yellow: Rarely
Sexual Reproduction
Perithecia: Never
Apothecia: Rarely
   Mazaedium: Never
Disk Color    (Dry) 
   Disk Brown or Tan: Almost always

Asexual Reproduction
Isidia: Sometimes
Soredia: Sometimes
Lobules: Never