<  Parmelia saxatilis
Parmelia sulcata  >
Click on Characteristic name for explanation. Click on image for larger version.
Parmelia squarrosa

Overview
PNW Range:
  West sideUncommon
  East sideNone
  Immediate coastCommon
  Alpine or subalpineNone
Habitat: Wet coastal forests, most often within sight or sound of the ocean.
Substrate: Bark and wood, mainly on conifers
Comments:
Synonymy: none
Parmelia squarrosa - Rhizines, young
Rhizines, young
by B. McCune
1/4
Parmelia squarrosa - Rhizines
Rhizines
by B. McCune
2/4
Parmelia squarrosa - Habit
Habit
by B. McCune
3/4
Parmelia squarrosa - Isidia
Isidia
by B. McCune
4/4
Scale: Bar=1mm unless noted
Growth Form
Fruticose: Never
Foliose: Almost always
Crustose: Never
Appressed Foliose: Commonly
Fluffy Foliose or Strappy: Sometimes
Dangling Hair: Never
Erect Hair: Never
Appressed Hair: Never
Stalks With Squamules: Never
Stalks: Never
Squamules: Never
Single Holdfast: Never
Dangling Nets: Never
Lobe Width (mm): 2 (± 1)

Upper Surface
Upper Surface Color    (Dry) 
   Pale Gray Green: Almost always
   Pale Green: Rarely
   Whitish: Sometimes
   Pale Gray: Almost always
Upper Surface Tomentose: Never
Upper Surface Pruinose or Scabrid: Never
Upper Surface with Network of Ridges: Sometimes
Upper Surface with Pseudocyphellae: Almost always
   Upper Surface with Holes into Cavity: Never
Cilia on Margins: Never
Lower Surface (Foliose)
Lower Surface Color    (Dry) 
   Black: Almost always
   Brown: Rarely
Veined Below: Never
Rhizinate Below: Almost always
   Rhizines Squarrose: Almost always
Tomentose Below: Never
Cyphellae: Never
Pseudocyphellae Below: Never
Papillae Below: Never

Interior
Inside (Medulla) Yellow or Orange: Never
Central Cord: Never
Hollow Stalks or Hollow Lobes: Never
Gelatinous: Never

Photobiont
Green Algae Primary Photobiont: Almost always
Cyanobacteria Primary Photobiont: Never
Internal Cephalodia: Never
External Cephalodia: Never

Chemistry
Cortex K+ Yellow: Almost always
Medulla P+ Orange or Red: Almost always
Medulla P+ Yellow: Rarely
Medulla K+ Orange or Red: Almost always
Medulla K+ Yellow: Rarely
Sexual Reproduction
Perithecia: Never
Apothecia: Rarely
   Mazaedium: Never
Disk Color    (Dry) 
   Disk Brown or Tan: Almost always

Asexual Reproduction
Isidia: Almost always
Soredia: Never
Lobules: Never