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Parmelia sulcata

Overview
PNW Range:
  West sideAbundant
  East sideAbundant
  Immediate coastAbundant
  Alpine or subalpineOccasional
Habitat: Occurring in a wide range of habitats, in both continental and oceanic climates, ranging from urban areas to the mountains but dropping out at the highest elevations.
Substrate: Bark and wood, less often or rock or mossy rock.
Comments:
Synonymy: none
Parmelia sulcata - Rhizines
Rhizines
by B. McCune
1/10
Parmelia sulcata - Soralia
Soralia
by B. McCune
2/10
Parmelia sulcata - Pseudocyphellae
Pseudocyphellae
by B. McCune
3/10
Parmelia sulcata - Lower
Lower
by B. McCune
4/10
Parmelia sulcata - K test
K test
by B. McCune
5/10
Parmelia sulcata - Soralia
Soralia
by B. McCune
6/10
Parmelia sulcata - Habit
Habit
by B. McCune
7/10
Parmelia sulcata - Habit
Habit
by B. McCune
8/10
Parmelia sulcata - P test
P test
by B. McCune
9/10
Parmelia sulcata - Habit
Habit
by B. McCune
10/10
Scale: Bar=1mm unless noted
Growth Form
Fruticose: Never
Foliose: Almost always
Crustose: Never
Appressed Foliose: Commonly
Fluffy Foliose or Strappy: Sometimes
Dangling Hair: Never
Erect Hair: Never
Appressed Hair: Never
Stalks With Squamules: Never
Stalks: Never
Squamules: Never
Single Holdfast: Never
Dangling Nets: Never
Lobe Width (mm): 2.5 (± 1)

Upper Surface
Upper Surface Color    (Dry) 
   Pale Gray Green: Almost always
   Pale Green: Rarely
   Whitish: Sometimes
   Pale Gray: Almost always
Upper Surface Tomentose: Never
Upper Surface Pruinose or Scabrid: Never
Upper Surface with Network of Ridges: Sometimes
Upper Surface with Pseudocyphellae: Almost always
   Upper Surface with Holes into Cavity: Never
Cilia on Margins: Never
Lower Surface (Foliose)
Lower Surface Color    (Dry) 
   Black: Almost always
   Brown: Rarely
Veined Below: Never
Rhizinate Below: Almost always
   Rhizines Squarrose: Almost always
Tomentose Below: Never
Cyphellae: Never
Pseudocyphellae Below: Never
Papillae Below: Never

Interior
Inside (Medulla) Yellow or Orange: Never
Central Cord: Never
Hollow Stalks or Hollow Lobes: Never
Gelatinous: Never

Photobiont
Green Algae Primary Photobiont: Almost always
Cyanobacteria Primary Photobiont: Never
Internal Cephalodia: Never
External Cephalodia: Never

Chemistry
Cortex K+ Yellow: Almost always
Medulla P+ Orange or Red: Almost always
Medulla P+ Yellow: Rarely
Medulla K+ Orange or Red: Almost always
Medulla K+ Yellow: Rarely
Sexual Reproduction
Perithecia: Never
Apothecia: Rarely
   Mazaedium: Never
Disk Color    (Dry) 
   Disk Brown or Tan: Almost always

Asexual Reproduction
Isidia: Never
Soredia: Almost always
Lobules: Never