The Hypogymnia Species of North America

Hypogymnia apinnata

Click on Characteristic name for explanation. Click on image for larger version.

Overview

Synopsis: Large, appressed or trailing, puffy, often nodulose lobes with sparse to abundant perforations in lobe tips and axils; lobe cavity with dark ceilings and floors; spot tests negative.
Distribution: Alaska to California, inland to Montana; North American endemic. Although broadly sympatric, H. apinnata appears to be somewhat more widespread than H. enteromorpha. In particular, H. apinnata seems to extend farther north and west along the Pacific coast of Alaska (to Attu Island), and is usually the more common of the two species in inland localities. Here it is especially common in the glacial refugia of the Clearwater Drainage in Idaho, where it occurs in oldgrowth forests at low to middle elevations.
Habitat: oceanic to suboceanic forests
Range: Northern Rocky Mountains, Arctic, Subarctic, Alpine, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Northwest Immediate Coast
Abundance in North America: Common
Substrate: Typically
Host: Conifers and hardwoods, both bark and wood
On Rock: Never
On Moss/Detritus/Sod: Never
Authority: Goward & McCune
References: Goward & McCune (1993)
Synonymy: None
Hypogymnia apinnata - Habit
Habit

Vegetative Structures

Habit Appressed: Sometimes
Habit Pendulous: Sometimes
Habit Erect to Suberect: Rarely
Size (cm): Mean: 15 SD: 7.5
Upper Color- White to Greenish Gray: White to greenish gray
Upper Surface Brown when Solarized: Blackish or unknown
Dark Mottles: Often present
Black Border: Often present
Lobes Separated: Contiguous or separate
Lobe Outline: Nodulose
Upper Surface Texture: Smooth to weakly rugose
Branching: Isotomic dichot.
Budding: Absent or rare
Lobe Width (mm): Mean: 3.5 SD: 1
Lobe Tips, Axils, and/or Lower Surface Perforated: Almost always
Lobe Tips Perforated: Perforate
Lower Surface Perforated: Perforate
Cavernulae: Never
Thallus Texture: Cartilaginous
Medulla: Almost always
Ceiling Color: Dark
Floor Color: Dark
Hypogymnia apinnata - Lobe tips
Lobe tips
1/9
Hypogymnia apinnata - Lower surface
Lower surface
2/9
Hypogymnia apinnata - Habit
Habit
3/9
Hypogymnia apinnata - Habit
Habit
4/9
Hypogymnia apinnata - Lobes
Lobes
5/9
Hypogymnia apinnata - Habit
Habit
6/9
Hypogymnia apinnata - Habit
Habit
7/9
Hypogymnia apinnata - Lobe cavity
Lobe cavity
8/9

Reproductive Structures

Soredia: None
Schizidia: Rarely
Isidia: None
Lobules: None
Apothecia: Common
Spore Length (µm): Mean: 6.75 SD: 0.125 Max: 7 Min: 6.5
Spore Width (µm): Mean: 5.25 SD: 0.125 Max: 5.5 Min: 5
Pycnidia: Common
Hypogymnia apinnata - Apothecia
Apothecia
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Hypogymnia apinnata - Apothecia
Apothecia
2/3
Hypogymnia apinnata - Hymenium
Hymenium
3/3

Chemistry