The Hypogymnia Species of North America

Hypogymnia bitteri

Click on Characteristic name for explanation. Click on image for larger version.

Overview

Synopsis: Rosettiform, solarizing to brown, with terminal and laminal soralia; similar to H. austerodes but with soralia on short, narrow upturned lateral lobes and often with small perforations in the lobe tips; medulla K+ slow red brown or K-, KC+ orange, P-
Distribution: H: Scandinavia, Europe s to Italy, Russian far east (Habarovsk Region, Badzhal Mts), China, Siberia (L. Baikal), Mongolia, Caucasus (Vezda 1746); Ukraine (Kondratyuk et al. 1996); Xizang (Tibet) (Wei & Jiang (1986)
Habitat: arctic alpine to boreal
Range: Southern Rocky Mountains, Northern Rocky Mountains, Arctic, Subarctic, Alpine
Other Diagnostics: Note sparse minute holes in lobe tips. Apo char's based on McCune 32897 from Alaska. Spores (5.0)6.6 - 7.0(7.6) x (3.3)3.6 - 4.0(4.2).
Substrate Notes: Usually on conifers, especially Picea, Abies, Pseudotsuga; occasional on hardwoods (e.g. Betula); occasional on tundra sod or moss over rock
Abundance in North America: Locally common
Substrate: Typically
Host: Conifers
On Rock: Rarely
On Moss/Detritus/Sod: Rarely
Authority: (Lynge) Ahti
References: Chemistry in Zeybek et al. (1993), Hansen & McCune (2010) , Westberg et al. (2011)
Synonymy: Hypogymnia protea, Hypogymnia salsa?, Hypogymnia verruculosa?
Hypogymnia bitteri - Habit
Habit

Vegetative Structures

Habit Appressed: Almost always
Habit Pendulous: Never
Habit Erect to Suberect: Never
Size (cm): Mean: 9 SD: 4.5
Upper Color- White to Greenish Gray: White to greenish gray or brown
Upper Surface Brown when Solarized: Dark brown
Dark Mottles: Sometimes present
Black Border: Sometimes present
Lobes Separated: Contiguous
Upper Surface Texture: Becoming rugose
Branching: Variable
Budding: Present
Lobe Width (mm): Mean: 2.25 SD: 0.875
Lobe Tips, Axils, and/or Lower Surface Perforated: Commonly
Lobe Tips Perforated: Perforate
Lower Surface Perforated: Entire
Cavernulae: Never
Thallus Texture: Cartilaginous
Medulla: Almost always
Ceiling Color: White or dark
Floor Color: Dark
Hypogymnia bitteri - Perforate lobe tips
Perforate lobe tips
1/13
Hypogymnia bitteri - Lobes
Lobes
2/13
Hypogymnia bitteri - Habit
Habit
3/13
Hypogymnia bitteri - Lobes
Lobes
4/13
Hypogymnia bitteri - Perforate lobe tips
Perforate lobe tips
5/13
Hypogymnia bitteri - Habit
Habit
6/13
Hypogymnia bitteri - Lobes
Lobes
7/13
Hypogymnia bitteri - Habit
Habit
8/13
Hypogymnia bitteri - Habit
Habit
9/13
Hypogymnia bitteri - Perforate lobe tips
Perforate lobe tips
10/13
Hypogymnia bitteri - Habit
Habit
11/13
Hypogymnia bitteri - Habit
Habit
12/13

Reproductive Structures

Soredia: 1+2+5
   Soredia Texture: Sometimes
   Soredia Terminal or Laminal: Sometimes
   Soredia Shape Lip-Shaped: Never
   Schizidia: Rarely
   Isidia: Rare
Lobules: Often present
Apothecia: Rare
Spore Length (µm): Mean: 6.3 SD: 0.65 Max: 7.6 Min: 5
Spore Width (µm): Mean: 3.75 SD: 0.225 Max: 4.2 Min: 3.3
Pycnidia: Rare
Hypogymnia bitteri - Soredia
Soredia
1/8
Hypogymnia bitteri - Apothecia
Apothecia
2/8
Hypogymnia bitteri - Apothecia
Apothecia
3/8
Hypogymnia bitteri - Soredia
Soredia
4/8
Hypogymnia bitteri - Hymenium, polarized light
Hymenium, polarized light
5/8
Hypogymnia bitteri - Spermatia
Spermatia
6/8
Hypogymnia bitteri - Hymenium
Hymenium
7/8
Hypogymnia bitteri - Ascospores
Ascospores
8/8

Chemistry