The Hypogymnia Species of North America

Hypogymnia physodes

Click on Characteristic name for explanation. Click on image for larger version.

Overview

Synopsis: Lip shaped soralia beneath the tips of imbricate lobes, lobes imperforate except for incipient soralia, medulla K+ slow reddish brown, KC+ orange red, P+ orange red.
Distribution: China: many provinces (Wei 1991); Asia, Africa, N Am, S Am, Australia, all territories of Russia except the steppes and desert zone and Talish (Rass. 1971); Europe, N Am, E Africa, Himalaya (Purvis et al. 1992); Madeira (Tavares 1952); Ukraine (Kondratyuk 1996); Turkey (John 1996); temperate west Himalayas (Awasthi 1988). India: Himachal Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir, Kukernag; Pahalgam to Baisaran; Sonamarg; Uttar Pradesh, Uttarkashi district; etc. (Awasthi 1984), Argentina (Calvelo & Liberatore 2002). Kazakhstan (Wagner & Spribille 2005, unpublished list).
Habitat: widespread, nonspecific
Range: Southern Rocky Mountains, Northern Rocky Mountains, Eastern North America, Arctic, Subarctic, Alpine, Pacific Northwest, Central and Southern California, Pacific Northwest Immediate Coast
Other Diagnostics: Soralizing to black rather than brown. Occasional small esorediate individuals can be recognized by the P+ medulla and imperforate lobe tips.
Substrate Notes: Occurring on virtually any substrate
Abundance in North America: Common
Substrate: Typically
Host: Conifers and hardwoods, bark and wood
On Rock: Rarely
On Moss/Detritus/Sod: Rarely
Authority: (L.) Nyl.
References: Population genetic data in Mattson et al. 2009 (Lichenologist 41:547-556); many papers referencing this species in air pollution work
Synonymy: None
Hypogymnia physodes - Habit
Habit

Vegetative Structures

Habit Appressed: Sometimes
Habit Pendulous: Rarely
Habit Erect to Suberect: Sometimes
Size (cm): Mean: 6 SD: 3
Upper Color- White to Greenish Gray: White to greenish gray
Upper Surface Brown when Solarized: Blackish or unknown
Dark Mottles: None or rare
Black Border: Sometimes present
Lobes Separated: Contiguous to imbricate or +/- separate
Lobe Outline: Even to irregular
Upper Surface Texture: Occasionally rugose
Branching: Variable
Budding: Occasional
Lobe Width (mm): Mean: 1.5 SD: 0.5
Lobe Tips, Axils, and/or Lower Surface Perforated: Rarely
Lobe Tips Perforated: Entire or torn
Lower Surface Perforated: Rarely perforate
Cavernulae: Never
Thallus Texture: Cartilaginous
Medulla: Almost always
Ceiling Color: White or dark
Floor Color: Dark
Hypogymnia physodes - Lobes
Lobes
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Hypogymnia physodes - Habit
Habit
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Hypogymnia physodes - Habit
Habit
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Hypogymnia physodes - Habit
Habit
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Hypogymnia physodes - Habit
Habit
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Hypogymnia physodes - Lower surface
Lower surface
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Hypogymnia physodes - Habit
Habit
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Hypogymnia physodes - Habit
Habit
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Reproductive Structures

Soredia: Labriform
   Soredia Texture: Commonly
   Soredia Terminal or Laminal: Almost always
   Soredia Shape Lip-Shaped: Almost always
   Schizidia: Rarely
   Isidia: None
Lobules: Rare
Apothecia: Rare
Spore Length (µm): Mean: 7 SD: 0.45 Max: 7.9 Min: 6.1
Spore Width (µm): Mean: 5.05 SD: 0.275 Max: 5.6 Min: 4.5
Pycnidia: Occasional
Hypogymnia physodes - Apothecia
Apothecia
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Hypogymnia physodes - Soredia
Soredia
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Hypogymnia physodes - Soredia
Soredia
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Hypogymnia physodes - Ascospores
Ascospores
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Chemistry